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THE REVIEW OF POST GRADUATE CURRICULUM IN ANATOMY

THE REVIEW OF POST GRADUATE CURRICULUM IN ANATOMY

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The review of Post graduate curriculum in Anatomy became necessary to harmonize the postgraduate training in all universities in Nigeria. This is because of disparities in the content of the postgraduate training in some universities awarding postgraduate degrees.

The following courses are proposed for M.SC Anatomy Programme in all Departments of Anatomy offering Post graduate degrees in Anatomy.

1ST semester

  1. Cell Biology and Advanced Histology
  2. Basic Pathology and Histopathology                                                  
  3. Neurobiology
  4. Physical/ Biological Anthropology
  5. Comparative vertebrate Anatomy
  6. Teratology

       SECOND SEMESTER                              

  1. Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
  2. Surface and Radiological Anatomy                            
  3. Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology
  4. Gross and Clinical Anatomy            
  5. Research Methods and Biostatistics
  6. Advanced Gross Anatomical techniques(Optional)

-bone preparation

-embalming

-Plastination

-museum                 

THIRD SEMESTER: Thesis/Disertation

 

COURSES FOR PHD PROGRAME

1st Semester

  1. Radiological and Clinical Anatomy
  2. Human Genetics and Cytogenetics
  3. Advanced Developmental Biology
  4. Advanced Neurobiology

Second Semester               

  1. Advances in Histochemistry, and Modern Histological Technique
  2. Cellular and Molecular Biology
  3. Physical and Forensic Anthropology
  4. Stereology

 

COURSE CONTENT FOR REVISED MSC PROGRAME

Cell Biology and Advanced Histology

  1. Levels of cellular organization in cell Biology- Limits and Dimension in Cell Biology, Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells
  2. The electron Microscopic structure of Animal cell including molecules in cells
  3. Types of microscope
  4. Cell cycle and control, cell division
  5. DNA replication, repair, and recombination
  6. From DNA to protein: How cells read the genome
  7. Control of gene expression
  8. Stem cell, differentiation and migration
  9. Structure of cell membrane and transport across membrane
  10. Cell to cell signaling- Hormone and receptors, Role of signals in metabolism
  • Cell body receptors, Epinephrine receptors and activation of Adehylate cyclase, C AMP and Regulation of metabolism
  • 2nd Messengers
  1. Multicellularity cell to cell and cell matrix interactions- collagen, Hyaluronic acid laninin, cell to cell Adhesion proteins, cell and matrix interactions
  2. The blood and body fluids
  • Plasma, C.S.F intraocular fluids, endolymph, perilymph and amniotic fluids
  1. The histological basis of muscular contraction
  2. The reticuloendothelial and lymphatic system
  3. Selected topics in electron microscopy of systemic Histology
  • Visual, auditory, excretory, reproductive system and Nervous tissue

BASIC PATHOLOGY AND HISTOPATHOLOGY

  1. Cell death, injury and Cellular Adaptation
  2.    Tissue repair, regeneration, wound Healing and fibrosis
  3.   Cellular Inflammation, acute and chronic inflammation
  4.    Neoplasia, Biology of Tumor growth, Benign and malignant tumors,
  5. Molecular basis of cancer.

           Environmental and Nutritional pathology etc

 

Neurobiology

  1. General organization of Nervous system
  2. Life history of Neuron
  3. The Neuron

            Cellular components of nerve tissue

            Morphofunctional regionalization and functions

            Axonal flow and pathfinding,

           Structural bases of the generation and propagation of the nervous impulse.

           The interneurons,  

              Cytochemistry of the Neurons

  1. Neuroglía.

      Concept of neuroglia.  

      Glial types and distribution,  Astrocytes. Oligodendrocytes.

      Microglia: functional meaning.

      Ependymocytes and epithelium of the choroid plexus

      Satellite cells of the peripheral ganglia

      Schwann cell, Nervous fiber, Myelin sheath.

  1. Synapses
  2. Anatomy of synapes
  3. Transmission mechanisms. Exciting or inhibitory effects of neurotransmitters. Neuromuscular junction: motor plate.

 

  1. The Autonomic Nervous System
  2. Anatomy
  3. Physiology
  4. The Cerebral hemispheres
  5. Organization of cerebral cortex
  6. Phylogeny of the basis of histological observations
  7. Neurophysiology of Cerebral Cortex
  8. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Sleep
  • Memory
  1. Neurophysiology of Cerebral dominance
  2. The Limbic System:
  3. Anatomy
  4. Physiology
  5. Neurobiolgy of Vision &smell
  6. Anatomy
  7. Physiology
  8. Neurobiology ofHearing
  9. Anatomy
  10. Physiology

 

 

PHYSICAL/ BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

  1. Introduction

-Nature of human kind

       -What is Anthropology -study of method?

       -Branches of anthropology

       -What is physical anthropology?

  1. Evolutionary Theory

       -Early views

       -Questioning the old ideas

       -Nature of science

       -Applying scientific knowledge to anthropological problem

  1. Application of Evolution to Humans

       -Human genetics

       -Cytogenetics and molecular genetics

       -Population genetics

  1. Human Variation

       -The nature of human growth and development

       -Osteology

       -Human adjustments and adaptations

       -Human variability

  1. Primatology

       -Peoples place in nature

       -The living primates

       -Primate behavior

       -Comparative anatomy of living primates

       -Comparative ontrony, molecular Biology and Cytology

  1. Human Paleoatology

       -Record of the past

       -Early primate fossil records

       -Australopithecus

       -Homo sapiens

       -Methods employed in the study of Fossil

  1. Anthropometry
  2. Human Ecology

        -Human relationship to the environment

        -Homo sapiens of the late upper Pleistocene

        -Post-Pleistocene Homo sapiens

        -Will there be a next millennium?

        -Application of anthropological knowledge

 

 

COMPARATIVE VERTEBRATE ANATOMY

 

  1. Skeletal Tissue and system
  2. Muscular Tissue and system
  3. The Integuments
  4. Respiratory system
  5. Excretory and other balance system
  6. Digestive system
  7. Circulatory system
  8. Reproductive system
  9. Endocrines
  10. Nervous Tissue
  11. Sense organs
  12. Nervous system
  13. Nervous Pathways

 

TERATOLOGY

 

  1.      Historical survey of congenital malformations
  2. Etiology of malformations
  • Environment factors- infectious agents etc
  • Radiations
  • Chemical agents and drugs
  1. Hormones - progestin

                              - Cortisone

                              - meternal diabetes

                              - Disturbed carbohydrates metabolism

  1. Nutritional deficiencies including hypoxia and environmental chemicals
  2. Chromosomal and genetic factors
  3. Autosomal adnormalities
  4. Abnormal chromosomes in abortions
  5. Sex chromosome abnormalities
  6. Structural abnormalities of chromosomes – deletion, duplication
  7. Abnormalities of genes e.g
  8. Autosomal dominance
  9. Sex-linked and autosomal recessive inheritance

       iii. Recessive genes and mutations

  1. Actions of teratogens
  • General considerations
  • Stages of embryonic development and susceptibility

 

HISTOCHEMISTRY AND CYTOCHEMISTRY

 

  1. Definition and historical survey of histochemistry and cytochemistry
  2. Cold knife and cryostat methods
  3. Freeze-drying/Freeze substitution of tissues
  4. Chemistry of fixation in histochemistry
  5. Instrumentation in histochemistry
  6. Principles of quantitative histochemistry and cytochemistry
  7. Histochemistry of proteins and amino acids including immunoflorescence
  8. Histochemistry of Carbohydrates and mucosubstances
  9. Histochemistry of lipids, lipoproteins and proteolipids
  10. Principles of enzyme histochemistry:
  11. Hydrolytic enzyme (Acid and alkaline phosphatases)
  12. Oxidases and peroxidases
  13. Dehydrogenases and diaphorases
  14. Transaminases
  15. Phosphorylases

 

SURFACE AND RADIOLOGICAL ANATOMY

 

  1. Skull radiograph
  2. Chest radiograph
  3. Barium meal/use of radiologic media
  4. Utrasonography
  5. Computerized tomography
  6. Angiography
  7. Urogram/Pyelogram

 

CLINCAL/SURFACE ANATOMY

  1. Skin and Incisions
  2. Thoracic viscera
  3. Lungs + Pleura
  4. Heart and Pericardium
  5. Trachae and bronchial tree
  • Abdominal viscera
  1. Stomach
  2. Duodenum and Pancreas
  3. Liver and Biliary apparatus
  • Pelvis Viscera
  1. Urinary bladder
  2. Uterus + Vagina
  3. Rectum + Anal Canal
  • Pelvis diaphragm

 

ENDOCRINOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY            

  1. Brief survey of Endocrine organs
  2. Hypothalamic control of Adenohypophysis
  3. Hormones of Adenohypophysis
  • ACTH
  • TSH
  • Gonadotropins
  1. Neurohypophyseal hormones including mammalian Neurophypophyseal hormones and their physical significance
  2. Female Gonadol hormones
  • Chemistry + Synthesis of Oestrogens, Androgens and Reaxin
  1. Male Gonadal hormones
  • Chemistry + Synthesis
  1. Adrenocortical hormones
  2. Thyroid and Parathyroid hormones
  3. Pancreatic hormones
  • Morphology of Islets of Langerhans
  • Effect of Removal
  • Action of pancreatic hormones
  1. Chromaffin Cell hormones including the Catecholamines
  • Producing cell system, distribution and metabolism of Chromaffin cell hormones
  1. Immunoassay of hormones

 

RESEARCH METHODS AND BIOSTATISTICS

  1. Definition of Research methods
  2. Classification and Types of Research methods
  3. Use of Library for Research
  4. Structure of a research thesis
  5. Structure of Research Paper.
  6. Research Ethics
  7. Use of internet as research tool.
  8. Descriptive statistics
  9. Knowledge of data collection tools and technique
  10. Data science methods and data representation methods
  11. Ways to successfully and efficiently communicate the results of data analysis
  12. Understanding how to avoid the risk of unverified and misleading claims based on data analysis

 

GROSS ANATOMY AND ADVANCED ANATOMICAL TECHNIQUES

  1. Review and dissection of;
  2. Upper and Lower limbs
  3. Thorax , abdomen, pelvis and perineum
  4. Head and neck
  5. Brain
  6. Bone preparation
  7. Embalming Techniques
  8. Plastination and its Techniques
  9. Museum Techniques and preparation of Pots

 

COURSE CONTENT FOR PHD PROGRAME

1ST SEMESTER

RADIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL ANATOMY

This course will deal with pattern recognition and critique of normal and clinical presentations on;

  1. Biliary and Respiratory systems
  2. Reproductive and cardiovascular systems,
  3. Tomographs (CTScans),
  4. Ultrasound,
  5. Magnetic resonance MR,
  6. Radioisotope images procedure outline on the upper extremity, pelvis and lower extremities, vertebral column,
  7. Clinical and Surgical Anatomy of the  above listed systems will be taught
  8. Radiographs, contrast radiographs films of GIT, excretory.

 

HUMAN GENETICS AND CYTOGENETICS

The course is to introduce the students to

  1. Principles of trait transmission,
  2. Complexities in relating genotype and phenotype,
  3. Chromosomal theory of inheritance,
  4. Gene linkage and recombination of DNA as molecule of hereditary and replication. 
  5. Recombinant DNA technology.
  6. Introduction to genetic engineering and its use in unraveling genomic information. 
  7. Gene regulation and development including its role in congenital malformations.
  8. DNA at high resolution and its use in cloning, PCR and tools for genetic analysis. 
  9. Use of transgenic mouse model for Human disease.
  • Population Genetics and founder mutations
  • Genetics of cancer and other diseases
  1. Human genetics and the future of biology and medicine.
  • Recent Advances in genetics.

 

ADVANCED DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

 

  1. General review of animal development from gamatogenesis to histogenesis,
  2. Role of cells in development and cell signaling.
  3. Modern concept of fertilization, cleavage, axis formation and mesoderm induction. 
  4. Localization cytoplasmic determinants.
  5. Cells adhesion and morphogenesis.
  6. Gene expression in development. 
  7. Stem cell development, potency and prospects in Medical Sciences.
  8. Pattern formation  and embryonic genes.
  9. Role of Hox gene in vertebrate development.
  10. Sex determination and hormonal control of development.
  11. Senescence, characterized genes that affect animal life span.
  12. Oxidative damage and organisimic senescence.

 

ADVANCED NEUROBIOLOGY   

 

This course will expose the students to

  1. Cellular and molecular properties of neuron
  2. Electrical activity of neurons,
  3. The  molecular basis of the chemical activity of neurons and chemical synaptic transmission,
  4. identity, actions and mechanisms of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators
  5. Fundamental concepts of development of nervous system to include control of proliferation and development, axonal outgrowth, pathfinding, synaptogenesis and formation of neuronal maps, neural regeneration.
  6. Neuronal function regulation, role of cytoskeleton in neuronal function,
  7. Signaling by GTP-binding proteins,
  8. Role of protein-protein interaction in the regulation of neural signaling,
  9. Genomic and proteomic approaches to study of neuronal signaling. 
  • Cell neuromuscular function and dysfunction.
  1. Biology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s diseases etc
  • Nerve growth factors and their role Medical advances

 

SECOND SEMESTER                      

ADVANCES IN HISTOCHEMISTRY AND MODERN HISTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE

  1. Advances in carbohydrate, protein nucleic acid, lipid Histochemistry and applications.
  2. Immunohistochemistry,
  3. in situ-hybridization,
  4. immunogold,
  5. in situ-PRC cell culture,
  6. Autoradiography,
  7. Anterograde and retrograde tracing
  8. Immunofluorescent techniques and use in diagnostic tumour pathology.
  9. Methods in electron microscopy theory, tissue preparation, staining and diagnostic uses.
  • Histometry and quantitative Histochemistry.

 

CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

  1. Comprehensive introduction to structure and function of cells and organelles,
  2. Cells as functional units, cellular diversity, cellular chemistry, cellular structure, cell cycle,
  3. Cell membrane activities, membrane transport
  4. Signal transduction and Clinical considerations.
  5. Cellular adaptations, cellular trauma, cancer cells,
  6. Cells and aging.
  7. Metabotropic and ionotopic receptor signaling,
  8. signaling by GTP binding proteins,
  9. role of protein interactions in regulation of cellular signaling, genomic and proteomic approaches to study of cellular signaling cell adhesion-molecules, strategy of cloning analysis. Advances in molecular Biology.

 

PHYSICAL AND FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY

  1. Biology of human variation and climatic adaptation.
  2. Studying the appearance of humans and dimensions such as;
  3. Dermatoglyphics, Fingerprinting
  4. Imaging, girth measurements,
  5. Surface area, mid-arm anthropometry,
  6. Pelvimetry,
  7. Craniometry and various indices including calculating the height (stature) of the individual from skeletal remains. 
  8. Methods in studying the physical differences between individual sexes, ethnic groups and races. Human Remains, Confirmation and Time of Death, Stomach Contents and ocular changes
  9. Forensic AnthropologyDefinition ,Processes of Decay, Autopsy Reports,
  10. DNA - Indispensible Forensic Anthropology
  11. Human Bone vs. Animal Bone Skeleton, Comparison of Human Males & Females Ancestry from Skeletal Remains,
  12. Determining Types of Trauma from Skeletal Remains,
  13. Forensic Serology.

Forensic Characterization of Bloodstains and Semen, Collection of Rape Evidence,

  1. Toxicology of Alcohol, Techniques and the Significance of Toxicological findings.

 

  1. Collection Techniques and Documentation of a crime Scene through, Photographic Evidence and Log recording.

 

Seminars can be added to the above coursework

In Addition, Departments of Anatomy can mount interdisciplinary MSC and PhD Programmes in the following specialized areas namely;

  1. Forensic Anthropology
  2. Human genetics and genomics
  3. Forensic Science/ Forensic Anthropolgy
  4. Clinical embryology and andrology
  5. Kinanthropometry and Sports Anatomy
  6. Mortuary science

 

By Professor Theresa Ekanem –  University of Calabar

Chairman Postgraduate Review Committee

Other members of the committee include:

Dr Loveday Oghenemavwe   - University of PortHarcourt

Dr Moses Ekong                      - University of Uyo

Dr Iniibehe Okoko                  - University of Lagos

Dr Adekomi, Alex A.               – Osun State University

We thank The President, Members of the Executive and entire members of Anatomical Society of   Nigeria for giving us the opportunity to serve our Great Society

 

Thank You

 

Prof. Theresa B. Ekanem

For the Committee

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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