Sexual Dimorphism in Cephalic Index and its Relationships with Height, Weight and BMI among Primary School Children in Sabon Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria
The study of head measurements or Cephalometric/Craniometrics demonstrated that head shape varies in different races and population across the world and is related to the cephalic index. Also the cephalic dimensions can be related to other body measurement which is important for Medical, Forensic and legal investigation as some body parts can be obtained at the crime or accident scenes. The purpose of this study was to establish specific standards data for sex determination from the cranium and to determine the relationship between cranial anthropometry with height, weight and BMI among primary school in north Nigerian population. The present study was carried out with 351 apparently healthy subjects (180 male & 171 females) attending Aminu LEA Model Primary school Sabon Gari, Zaria Kaduna State of Nigeria. Cranial measurements including cranial length, cranial width and cranial circumference as well as height and weight were taken using standard measuring tape as well as stadiometer and weighing balance respectively; data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. The mean cephalic index was 81.83±9.58. The mean cephalic index for male was 81.85±9.48 and for female was 81.82±9.71. No significant sex differences was observed in the cephalic index (p= 0.982). Cephalic index predicted height positively in the general population (HT= -0.288*CI+151.673, r = 0.318, p < 0.001) as well as in males (HT=-.253*CI+149.344, r = 0.290, p<0.001) and females (HT=-.323*CI+153.993, r = 0.346, p<0.001) respectively. This study will serve as basis for comparison on other geographical region population in future studies.
Key Words: Forensic Sciences, height, Craniometric, Northern Nigerian population