Histological and Biochemical Effects of Chronic Chloramphenicol Administration on the Liver of Albino Wistar Rats
Chloramphenicol (CAP) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic affecting both Gram- positive and Gram- negative organisms. It is used in many parts of the world for the treatment of life-treating infections including typhoid fever and meningitis. It is a commonly abused drug in Nigeria. The effect of chronic administration of Chloramphenicol on the histology of the liver was investigated in rats. fifteen mature albino wistar rats weighing between 180g-302g were divided into three groups of five rats each. Group A was the control group and was administered with 1 ml of distil water, Group B was administered with 7.14 mg/kg body weight of chloramphenicol, Group C was administered with 14.29 mg/kg body weight of chloramphenicol. Drug administration was done twice daily for 4 weeks. On the 29th day, the rats were sacrificed using chloroform inhalation method, the livers were harvested and processed. The tissues sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin staining technique. Blood samples were collected for liver function test; aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphotase ALP. Histological results revealed moderate to severe cellular distortion, with nuclear clumping, vascular congestion and degeneration, vacuolization, enlargement of the central vein, dilatation of the sinusoids and nuclei pyknosis in the treated groups, when compared with the control (Group A), biochemical analysis revealed increased levels of Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that chronic administration of chloramphenicol is toxic to the liver and should be taken with caution.
Key Words: Chloramphenicol, liver, biochemical, histological