Hippocampal Immunohistopathological and Blood Morphological Effects of Nauclea latifolia Extract and Artemether-Lumenfantrine in Suppressive Malaria Mice Model
The effect of ethanolic leave extract of Nauclea latifolia and Artemether-Lumfantrine was investigated in a suppressive model of malaria on the hippocampus of Swiss albino mice. Mice were infected intraperitoneally with P berghei 1 x 107 parasites, and then treated within an hour with Nacl 0.9% IOml/kg for control; and 5 mg Artemether-Lumefantrine per kg body weight of the mice for test 3 days. Organosomatic index, thick blood smear, parasite density, hippocampal histomorphology and immunolabeling of glial fibrillary acidic protein were assessed. Result show the organosomatic index was not statistically significant (p>0.05) when treated groups were compared with control; the parasite density decreased significantly (p<0.05) in a dose dependent manner in the extract as well asArtemether-Lumefantrine compared with the control; hyperparasitemia observed in untreated group moderately declined in the extract treated but was completely cleared inArtemether-Lumefantrine group; the histomorphology ofhippocampal sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin showed severe neuronal shrinkage and distortion in the untreated groups compared to treated groups, while the immunolabelling of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression indicated reactive astrogliosis by the intensely stained cells in all groups, but marginally reduced at 500 mg/kg of the extract. In conclusion the suppressive malaria model in mice provides evidence that phytochemicals in ethanolic extract ofNauclea latifolia leaf moderately reduces P berghei at 1000 mg/kg in slight comparison with Artemether/Lumefantrine at 5 mg/kg, and it offered minimal neuroprotection against the histormorphological distortion of the hippocampus, astrocyte swelling and intense glial fibrillary acidic protein expression due to P berghei infection.
Key Words: Nauclea latifolia, Artemether-Lumefantrine, Plasmodium berghei, Gliosis