Parkia clappertoniana Mitigated Neuronal Damage in the Hippocampus in Lithium Chloride-Pilocarpine-induced Epilepsy in Wistar rat Model
This study investigated the effects of Parkia clappertoniana (PC) on the hippocampal structure and functions in Lithium Chloride-Pilocarpine-induced Epilepsy in Wistar rat Model. A total of 36 adult male Wistar rats were used for this study and divided into groups A to F, group A (Control), B (200mg/kg of PC), C (127mg/kg of Lithium chloride + 30mg/kg of Pilocarpine), D (127mg/kg of Lithium chloride + 30mg/kg of Pilocarpine + 100mg/kg of PC), E (127mg/kg of Lithium chloride + 30mg/kg of Pilocarpine + 200mg/kg of PC), F(127mg/kg of Lithium chloride + 30mg/kg of Pilocarpine +10mg/kg Sodium valproate). Treatment lasted for 28 days and the neurobehavioural studies carried out were Open Field and Radial Arm Maze tests. Animals were sacrificed and fixed using perfusion method. The brain specimens were grossed and subjected to morphological analysis, neurotransmitter test for glutamate, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and enzyme test for Glutamate decarboxylase. Results showed significant decrease in the level of anxiety, exploratory activities and memory across the groups induced with epilepsy when compared with the control and observable increase in anxiety, exploratory activities and memory of the groups treated with PC and sodium valproate. The neurotransmitter glutamate showed significant increase in group C when compared with control and the rest of the treated groups. Histological result showed evidences of neuronal degeneration, vacuolation, and pyramidal cell dispersion in group C when compared with the control and rest of the groups. The pyramidal cells appeared better organized in group administered with low dose of PC when compared with the groups treated with high dose. Also, the GFAP test showed reactive astrocytosis in the groups induced with epilepsy and observable decrease in astrogliosis in groups treated with PC and sodium valproate. In conclusion, this study shows possible anticonvulsant properties of Parkia clappertoniana as seen in amelioration of glutamate levels following administration of PC and removed on its effects on hippocampal CA1 neuron and reduction in astrocytic reactivity and this is in agreement with previous study that reported its used in folk medicine to treat epilepsy especially in the northern part of Nigeria.
Key Words: Epilepsy, Parkia clappertoniana, Hippocampus, Lithium Chloride, Pilocarpine