Prophylactic Study of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina (ELVA) In Cerebral Cortex of Young Mice Inoculated with Plasmodium berghei
In developing countries traditional medicine still plays an important role in local health care systems. Estimation has shown that up to 80% of some Asian and African countries depend on traditional medicine for their health care needs. Vernonia amygdalina has been reported to show a significant inhibitory activity in-vitro. This study was conducted to investigate the histological changes of ethanol leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina (ELVA) in cerebral cortex of young mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (Pb). A total of twentyfive (25) young mice, mixed sex, aged 2-3 weeks, weighing between 5-8g were divided into five groups with five mice per group. Group 1 (distilled water), Group 2 (Pb), Group 3 (Pb + ELVA 250mg/kg), Group 4 (Pb + ELVA 125mg/kg) and Group 5 was treated with (Pb + 1.2mg/kg Pyrimethamine). The mice were treated with ELVA for 72 hours prior to inoculation with P. berghei, while parasite quantification was recorded up till the 8th day before sacrifice. Brain tissues of sacrificed mice were removed and fixed in Bouin's fluid, processed for histopathology using Haematoxyline and Eosin (H and E), and Cresyl Echt Violet stain. ELVA at doses 2500mg/kg, 1250mg/kg and Pyrimethamine at 1.2mg/kg exhibited parasitemia level of no statistical significance and percentage suppression of group 3 (72.7%), group 4 (76.2%) and group 5 (61%) (p<0.057) respectively as compared to control group. In this prophylactic design there was no significant changes between the ELVA treated groups and the untreated. The study shows that ELVA has a minimal dose dependent effect on the parasite quantification and the histopathological observations.
Key Words: Vernonia amygdalina, ELVA, P. berghei, Pyrimethamine