Digital Dermatoglyphic Patterns of Ibibio Ethnic Group of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Dermatoglyphics is the study of the configuration of epidermal ridges of the volar surfaces of palms, fingers, soles and toes. This study on digital dermatoglyphic patterns of Ibibio ethnic group of Akwa Ibom State was aimed at analyzing the dermatoglyphic patterns present on the fingers of the Ibibio people and the interrelationship existing among them. A total of two hundred and twenty (220) subjects who are indigenes of Ibibio ethnic group of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were selected for this research, one hundred and ten for both males and females. Informed consent was obtained from subjects prior to this research. The digital lipstick dermatoglyphic method was employed for the study. The subjects' hands were painted with lipstick, the subjects were asked to place their entire palms on a white duplicating paper which leaves the fingerprint on the paper. The fingerprints of subjects were analyzed with the aid of a magnifying glass to obtain the different print patterns. Chi-square was used as a statistical tool to analyse the fingerprints. The results obtained for the right fingerprints were as follows: 12.1%, 1.55%, 49.5%, 0.9%, 33.65, 0.5%, 0.9%, 0.5%, 0.5% for Plain Arch (PA), Tented Arch (TA), Ulnar Loop (UL), Radial Loop (RL), Plain Whorl (PW), Double Loop Whorl (DLW), Concentric Whorl Pattern (CWP), Central Pocketed Whorl (CPW) and composite whorl respectively. For the left fingerprints, the results obtained were: 13.4%, 3.2%, 48.4%, 1.1%, 31.1%, 1.1%, 0.7%, 0.1% and 1.0% for Plain Arch (PA), Tented Arch (TA), Ulnar Loop (UL), Radial Loop (RL), Plain Whorl (PW), Double Loop Whorl (DLW), Concentric Whorl Pattern (CWP), Central Pocketed Whorl (CPW) and composite whorl respectively. Results revealed that digital dermatoglyphic pattern differed significantly amongst the Ibibio subjects. Ulnar loop appeared most frequently distributed on the right hand with 49.5% and 48.4% on the left hand. This study presents the first ever documented record of dermatoglyphics of Ibibio tribe in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
Key Words: Dermatoglyphics, Fingerprint pattern, Lipstick, Ibibio