Neuronal Degeneration in Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus in Wistar Rat; Kolaviron to The Rescue?
Hydrocephalus is known to result in neuronal degeneration which have been attributed to cognitive and motor deficit associated with the disease. Delay in surgical intervention owing to poor infrastructure, inadequate manpower and a state of denial necessitated the search for neuroprotective plant materials. Kolaviron is a defatted ethanol extract from the seeds of Garcinia kola with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. This study is aimed at investigating the possible neuroprotective role of Kolaviron in Kaolin-induced hydrocephalic rats. Ninety Wistar rats aged three weeks old were randomly assigned into three groups (n=30) sacrificed at 1st, 2nd and 3rd week post-kaolin induction respectively. Each group was further divided into six sub-groups (n=5) (Control, Hydrocephalus only, Kolaviron 100 mg/kg, Kolaviron 200 mg/kg, Hydrocephalus+Kolaviron 100 mg/kg, Hydrocephalus+Kolaviron 200 mg/kg). Hydrocephalus was induced by intra-cisternal injection of 0.04 ml of kaolin suspension (200 mg/ml). Neurobehavioral assessment of anxiety and locomotion was done 2 hours before sacrifice. Brain coronal slices at optic chiasma level were fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin. Paraffin sections (5?m) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for neuronal density assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at p< 0.05. Compared with their corresponding controls, brain weight and neuronal density were significantly reduced in hydrocephalic rats. Neuronal degeneration was observed in all hydrocephalic groups. Degree of neurodegeneration was reduced in those that received 200 mg/kg of Kolaviron when compared with the 100 mg/kg of Kolaviron group. The study concluded that Kolaviron is neuroprotective at 200 mg/kg but not at 100 mg/kg.
Key Words: Hydrocephalus, neurons, neuro-degeneration, Kolaviron, Garcinia kola.