Effect of Aqueous Extract of Gnetum Africanum (Afang) Leave on the Liver and Liver Enzymes of Adult Wistar Rats
Afang (Gnetum africanum) leaves are largely consumed as vegetable in Africa. The present study explore the hepatotoxicity of aqueous extract of Gnetum africanum on the liver and liver enzymes of adult Wistar rats. Fifteen (15) adult wistar rats weighing between 120 -150g were assigned into 3 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 was the control group administered with normal rat feed and 0.3ml of normal saline, group 2 was the low dose group treated orally with 0.3ml of gnetum africanum and rat feed and group 3 the high dose group was fed with 0.5ml of gnetum africanum, normal rat feed with water. The treatment lasted for (14days). After the end of the administration, the weight were taking before sacrificed the next day under chloroform anesthesia. Blood was collected from the left ventricle through cardiac puncture and liver excised and fixed in 10% formal saline, then processed for rapid routine paraffin embedding. Tissues were stained with routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain, Observed under a digital light microscope and micrograph were taken. Result of the study revealed a dose dependent significant (p<0.001) increased of liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in both low dose and high dose in the administered group when compared to the normal control. Histological observations reveal dose dependent distortion in the liver architecture when compared to the normal control group, hence this study is suggestive that administration of Gnetum africanum at various dosages may have adverse effect on the liver.
Key Words: Afang leaf (Gnetum africanum), liver, liver enzymes, aqueous extract, wistar rat