Neuroprotective Effects of Kolaviron on the Hippocampus of Foetal Wistar Rats in-Utero using Biochemical Markers
Pregnancy spans from conception till birth. Drugs and substances administered during pregnancy have the potential to reach the brain by crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB). Kolaviron has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of kolaviron on the biochemical and histological parameters of the hippocampus of pregnant Wistar rats. Forty-five rats (thirty females and fifteen males) were used for the purpose of this study. Vaginal smear was performed on the female rats to ascertain their estrous cycle before introducing male Wistar rats for sexual activity. Mating was confirmed following presence of sperm cells; the female animals were grouped into 5: A (distilled water), B (200 mg/kg BW of kolaviron) and C (0.6 mls of corn oil) in the 2nd and 3rd week of gestation. Administration was done orally with the use of an oral cannula on days 8- 10 and days 15- 18 of gestation respectively. Pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 20 of gestation while their brains were excised and homogenized in 0.25 M of sucrose solution for biochemical analysis. There was no significant statistical difference in the body weight, brain and hippocampal weight changes across the groups of the pregnant animals. Although there was also no statistical significant difference in the levels of antioxidants (SOD, GPX), enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism (G-6-PDH and LDH) and hormones (progesterone and estrogen) across the groups, there was physical reduction in antioxidants in the kolaviron groups compared to the control groups. It was also observed that the levels of antioxidants and hormones were higher in the 3rd week of gestation when compared to those observed during the 2nd week. These changes though not statistically significant were found to be augmented in the 3rd week of gestation than during the 2nd week mostly the antioxidants and hormones. This might be attributed to the stress associated with pregnancy particularly during the 2nd week of gestation, the period when development of the hippocampus takes place.
Key Words: pregnancy, kolaviron, blood brain barrier, hippocampus, hormones